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Medical Literature References on Treatment of Osteoarthritis with Glucosamine Sulfate

Lopes Vaz A
Double-blind clinical evaluation of the relative efficacy of ibuprofen and glucosamine sulphate in the management of osteoarthrosis of the knee in out-patients.

In: Curr Med Res Opin (1982) 8(3):145-9

ISSN: 0300-7995

A double-blind trial was carried out in 40 out-patients with unilateral osteoarthrosis of the knee to compare the efficacy and tolerance of oral treatment with 1.5 g glucosamine sulphate or 1.2 g ibuprofen daily over a period of 8 weeks. Pain scores decreased faster during the first 2 weeks in the ibuprofen than in the glucosamine treatment group. Although the rate of decrease was slower, the reduction in pain scores was continued throughout the trial period in patients an glucosamine and the difference between the two groups turned significantly in favour of glucosamine at Week 8. No significant differences were observed in swelling or any of the other parameters monitored. Tolerance was satisfactory with both treatments, with only minor complaints being reported by 2 patients on glucosamine compared with 5 patients on ibuprofen.

Registry Numbers: 15687-27-1 (Ibuprofen)
3416-24-8 (Glucosamine)

81065906

Pujalte JM Llavore EP Ylescupidez FR
Double-blind clinical evaluation of oral glucosamine sulphate in the basic treatment of osteoarthrosis.

In: Curr Med Res Opin (1980) 7(2):110-14

ISSN: 0300-7995

The efficacy and tolerance of oral glucosamine sulphate were tested against placebo in a prospective double-blind trial in 20 out- patients with established osteoarthrosis. Two capsules of either glucosaminene sulphate (250 mg) or placebo were administered 3-times daily over a period of 6 to 8 weeks. Articular pain, joint tenderness and restricted movement were semi-quantitatively scored 1 to 4 every 3 days, and individually averaged over the treatment period (overall composite score). Possible side-reactions were similarly scored upon positive questioning of the patients. Haematology, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, urine analysis and X-rays were recorded before and after treatment. Significant alleviation of symptoms was associated with the use of the active drug at the prescribed dose. Similarly, patients given glucosamine sulphate experienced earlier alleviation of symptoms compared with those who had placebo. The use of glucosamine sulphate also resulted in a significantly larger proportion of patients who experienced lessening or disappearance of symptoms within the trial period. No adverse reactions were reported by the patients treated with glucosamine, and no variation in laboratory tests was recorded.

Registry Numbers: 3416-24-8 (Glucosamine)


JOURNAL OF MANIPULATIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL THERAPEUTICS

(REFERENCE 4 OF 7)
97418499

Gottlieb MS
Conservative management of spinal osteoarthritis with glucosamine sulfate and chiropractic treatment.

In: J Manipulative Physiol Ther (1997 Jul-Aug) 20(6):400-14

ISSN: 0161-4754

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rationale behind the most commonly used treatments of osteoarthritis, including nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and to assess more effective conservative treatment options. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: This review includes a description of the pathophysiology and prevalence of osteoarthritis, joint physiology and NSAID treatment of osteoarthritis, as well as side effects on joints, the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and livers. Several studies of conservative treatment, consisting of supplementation of glucosamine sulfate (which occurs naturally in the human body), exercise, and the use of chiropractic treatment for maintaining joint function and preventing further destruction, are reviewed. DATA SOURCES: A computerized search of Medline using the key indexing terms osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs, glucosamine sulfate, chiropractic and manipulation. RESULTS: Numerous studies wee obtained under each subheading and reviewed by category. Human and animal-model studies are described. CONCLUSION: The rationales for using NSAIDs in the treatment of osteoarthritis is controversial and openly contested. Given the detrimental effects of NSAIDs on joints and other organs, their use should be discouraged and their classification as a first choice conservative treatment should be abolished. A truly effective and conservative approach to the treatment of osteoarthritis should include chiropractic manipulation, essential nutrient supplementation, exogenous administration of glucosamine sulfate and rehabilitative stretches and exercises to maintain joint function. Because there is no correlation between pain levels and the extent of degeneration detected by radiographic or physical examination, conservative treatment should be initiated and sustained based on functional, objective findings and not strictly on how the patient feels. The use of NSAIDs should be limited to the treatment of gross inflammation and analgesics should only be used in the short-term when absolutely necessary for pain palliation. The present conservative approach could lead not only to a better quality of life but also to the saving of health care dollars by reducing the iatrogenic morbidity and mortality associated with NSAID use.
Registry Numbers: 3416-24-8 (Glucosamine)


MEDICAL HYPOTHESES

(REFERENCE 5 OF 7)
95020811

McCarty MF
The neglect of glucosamine as a treatment for osteoarthritis--a personal perspective.

In: Med Hypotheses (1994 May) 42(5):323-7

ISSN: 0306-9877

Osteoarthritis results from progressive catabolic loss of cartilage proteoglycans, owing to an imbalance between synthesis and degradation. Standard drug therapy is only of palliative benefit and may exacerbate loss of cartilage. Glucosamine is an intermediate in mucopolysaccharide synthesis, and its availability in cartilage tissue culture can be rate-limiting for proteoglycan production. A number of double-blind studies dating from the early 1980s demonstrate that oral glucosamine decreases pain and improves mobility in osteoarthritis, without side effects. Nevertheless, medical researchers and physicians in the US have totally ignored this rational and safe therapeutic strategy. By mechanisms that are still unclear, the natural methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine also promotes production of cartilage proteoglycans, and is therapeutically beneficial in osteoarthritis in well-tolerated oral doses. These and other safe nutritional measures supporting proteoglycan synthesis, may offer a practical means of preventing or postponing the onset of osteoarthritis in older people or athletes.
Registry Numbers: 29908-03-0 (S-Adenosylmethionine)
3416-24-8 (Glucosamine)


PHARMATHERAPEUTICA

(REFERENCE 6 OF 7)
83039552

Tapadinhas MJ Rivera IC Bignamini AA
Oral glucosamine sulphate in the management of arthrosis: report on a multi-centre open investigation in Portugal.

In: Pharmatherapeutica (1982) 3(3):157-68

ISSN: 0308-051X

An open study was carried out by 252 doctors throughout Portugal to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of oral glucosamine sulphate in the treatment of arthrosis. Patients received 1.5 g daily in 3 divided doses over a mean period of 50 +/- 14 days. The results from 1208 patients were analyzed and showed that the symptoms of pain at rest, on standing and on exercise and limited active and passive movements improved steadily through the treatment period. The improvement obtained lasted for a period of 6 to 12 weeks after the end of treatment. Objective therapeutic efficacy was rated by the doctors as 'good' in 59% of patients, and 'sufficient' in a further 36%. These results were significantly better than those obtained with previous treatments (except for injectable glucosamine) in the same patients. Sex, age, localization of arthrosis, concomitant illnesses or concomitant treatments did not influence the frequency of responders to treatment. Oral glucosamine was fully tolerated by 86% of patients, a significantly larger proportion than that reported with other previous treatments and approached only by injectable glucosamine. The onset of possible side-effects was significantly related to pre-existing gastro-intestinal disorders and related treatments, and to concomitant diuretic treatment.

Registry Numbers: 3416-24-8 (Glucosamine)

(REFERENCE 7 OF 7)
81247600

D'Ambrosio E Casa B Bompani R Scali G Scali M
Glucosamine sulphate: a controlled clinical investigation in arthrosis.

In: Pharmatherapeutica (1981) 2(8):504-8

ISSN: 0308-051X

Efficacy and tolerance of a new preparation of pure glucosamine sulphate, in injectable and oral form, were investigated in 30 patients with osteoarthrosis. Two groups of in-patients with chronic degenerative articular disorders received daily for 7 days either 400 mg glucosamine sulphate or a piperazine/chlorbutanol combination by intravenous or intramuscular injection. During the 2 following weeks, the patients receiving glucosamine had oral glucosamine capsules (6 x 250 mg daily); the other group had placebo. Efficacy was tested by semi-quantitative scoring of pain at rest and during active and passive movements, as well as limitation of articular function, before and after 7 and 21 days of treatment. Patients were positively questioned daily for possible intolerance symptoms. Haematology, circulatory data and urine analysis were tested before and after treatment. During both initial parenteral treatments, each symptom significantly improved, but to a faster and greater extent in the group treated with glucosamine. During the maintenance period, a further improvement was recorded in the patients treated with glucosamine, whereas in those on placebo the symptom scores increased almost to the pre-treatment level. This was considered the major difference between basic therapy, such as with glucosamine, as purely symptomatic treatment. Clinical and biological tolerance were excellent with both treatments, and no definitely drug-related complaints were recorded. It is suggested that parenteral and/or oral treatment with pure glucosamine sulphate should be considered as basic therapy for the management of primary or secondary degenerative osteoarthrosis disorders.

Registry Numbers: 3416-24-8 (Glucosamine)


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